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SLA - Stereolithography

SLA is an additive manufacturing process that was introduced and invented in 1986. In fact, SLA was the technology used to manufacture the first 3D printed parts. This technology uses a vat photopolymerization process and the materials used in the SLA are mainly thermoset polymers in a liquid state. This 3D printing method provides parts with a lot of detail.
SLA works on the principle of light curing, using a high power laser that hardens the polymer according to the CAD design. The print platform is positioned one layer high away from the surface of the liquid in the liquid polymer resin tank. The UV laser creates the next layer by selectively curing and solidifying the photopolymer resin. The cross-sectional area is continuously scanned to ensure that each layer is completely solidified before moving on to the next layer.
When a layer is finished, the platform is moved to a safe distance and the sweeping blade coats the surface with resin. This process is repeated several times until the entire part is produced.
The finished part is removed from the printer and washed in isopropyl alcohol to remove excess resin. If the part is made with supports, these can be removed after printing is complete. After that, additional post-processing takes place by passing the part through ultraviolet light to obtain more rigidity and higher mechanical and thermal properties.

  • Fit and size tests of parts to be manufactured in other materials.

  • Dentistry (manufacture of dental prostheses)

  • Obtaining final products (paint, texture) for market testing

  • Production molds for processing purposes or mold patterns for vacuum casting


DMLS – Direct Metal Laser Sintering

Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a common 3D printing or additive manufacturing technique that is also referred to as selective laser melting (SLM).
In this process, the part is manufactured layer by layer by a laser that melts metallic powder at specific points in space. Once a layer is printed, the machine spreads more powder over the part and repeats the process. This process is ideal for printing precise, high-resolution parts with complex geometries. DMLS machines use a laser to heat the metal powder to its melting point, in a digital process that eliminates the need for physical molds. The resulting parts are precise, have excellent surface quality and mechanical properties almost like castings.


This technology can be used, for example, in aerospace engineering in the construction of injectors and functional prototypes, in the medical field, such as the development of dental devices and surgical material, and in the industrial area, for the development of manufacturing accessories.

FFF – Fuse Filament Fabrication

Although it has its origins in the 80s, having been identified as a manufacturing technology, FFF, in the work environment, really took off just over 10 years ago. This technology comes with the fall of patents, giving rise to projects such as the "Open-Source RepRap" initiative that led to greater innovation and accessibility to this type of technology. Today, FFF technology is considered a low-cost solution compared to other 3D printing processes, both in terms of initial investment and running costs. This additive manufacturing technology has proven to be reliable, accurate and capable of producing robust parts. Thanks to this technological advance, more and more, over the years, part of the manufacturing industry is using this technology to drive innovation.

  • Manufacturing - FFF 3D printing is widely used in manufacturing industries. 3D printers have the ability to manufacture parts in a short time, thus maximizing production time and productivity on the production line.

  • Prototyping - Low cost materials and short print times make 3D FFF printing ideal for the iterative design process. 3D printed prototypes can be used to visualize concepts or functionally test technical parts

  • Education - Affordable, easy-to-use FFF hardware enables a variety of applications
    educational – from engaging younger students with basic 3D knowledge, such as
    provide production labs for university students to work on engineering projects and develop skills for the modern workplace.



ISO 17296 Additive manufacturing — General principles:

— Part 1: Terminology (1)

— Part 2: Overview of process categories, part types and feedstock

— Part 3: Main characteristics and corresponding test methods

— Part 4: Overview of data processing

ISO 27547-1: 2010 Plastics - Preparation of test specimens of thermoplastic materials using moldless technologies

— Part 1: General principles, and laser sintering of test specimens


ISO/ASTM 52900:2015: Additive manufacturing

— General principles — Terminology

ISO/ASTM 52901:2017: Additive manufacturing

— General principles — Requirements for purchased AM parts


ISO/ASTM 52910:2018: Additive manufacturing

— Design — Requirements, guidelines and recommendations


ISO/ASTM 52915:2016: Specification for Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) Version 1.2


ISO/ASTM 52921:2013: Standard terminology for additive manufacturing—Coordinate systems and test methodologies

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